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Panchakarma is a specialty of Kayachikitsa (Medicine). Pancha means ‘five’ and Karma means ‘action’, so Panchakarma means five action. Panchakarma (five major BioPurification Therapies)

Vamana (Therapeutic Vomiting or Emesis)

Virechana (Purgation)

Basti :- two types Niruha Basti (Decotion Enema) Anuvasana Basti (Oil Enema)

Nasya (Elimination of toxins through the nose/errhine therapy)

Raktamokshan (Bloodletting)

These five procedures use for internal purification of the body. Such purification allows the biological system to return to homeostasis and to rejuvenate rapidly and also facilities the desired pharmacokinetic effect of medicines administered thereafter.

Panchakarma provides a comprehensive therapy role as a promoter, preventive, curative & rehabilitative procedure.

Introduction:. Panchakarma therapies are popular in the field of Ayurvedic disease management. Though their effect and safety is well established by the evidence of experiences since many centuries. This therapy restores balance with natural law to maintain the equilibrium of doshas and stabilize the internal milieu of body.

Panchakarma helps to eliminates toxins in a more stable way, allowing healing of tissues, cleaning of srotas (channels), improving digestion and mental function.

 According to Ayurvedic texts our body is a network of Srotasas. Diseases occur when toxins get accumulated in body and clog these Srotas. Through Panchakarma therapy these toxic clogs are cleared to restore normal physiological process.

Panchakarma therapy is not only for diseased person it can also be administered to a normal person to prevent diseases and keep his body healthy. Therefore it is an important therapy for maintaining the health of individuals and also regulates with imbalance doshas to cure the diseases.

Process of Panchakarma (Comprises of three parts):

  1. Purva Karma (Preparatory Procedure)
  2. Pradhan Karma (Main procedures)
  3. Paschat Karma (methods after main procedure) Samsarjana Karma (specific dietetic regimen and mode)

Utility of Panchakarma:

  1. Panchakarma is a very unique therapeutic procedure, because of its preventive, promoter, prophylactic and rejuvenate properties as well as providing a radical cure.
  2. Panchakarma plays a vital role in the preservation, maintenance & conservation of health & promotion of longevity. They form a part in the regimen of preventive medicine (SvasthVritta) indicated as prophylactic measures in the context of epidemics and pan epidemics.
  3. All diseases occur due to suppression and forceful expulsion of natural urges. Panchakarma is the best treatment for the diseases caused by suppression natural urges (Vega Daharana). Suppression of natural urges affects gastrointestinal motility and continence of sphincters and later neuro-humoral control of glands. Vatanulomana is the prime line of treatment for disease due to suppression of urges and Basti is best treatment among Vatanulomana therapies.
  4. Bio-purification makes the biological system to return to normalcy & to rejuvenate rapidly & also facilitates the desired pharmaco- kinetic effect of therapeutic remedies administered there after.
  5. It eliminates toxins & stagnated excreta & metabolites from the body, cleanses the macro & micro channels, maximizes the absorption & metabolism of nutrients& drugs, and helps in minimizing their dose & toxicity.
  6. Panchakarma purifies or cleanses all the body tissues and micro-circulatory channels, and brings about the harmony of tridosha i.e. vata, pitta, kapha and manasadosha (satva, raja and tama) in such a way that vitiated doshas are regulated in the body and long lasting beneficial effects of long duration are produced in the body.

Vamana (Therapeutic Emesis):

It is a process in which vitiated doshas (Bio-homour) are expelled through the upper route. i.e. mouth. When there is congestion in the lungs causing repeated attacks of bronchitis, cold, cough or asthma, the ayurvedic treatment is therapeutic vomiting, to eliminate the Kapha. Therapeutic vomiting is mainly indicated in chronic asthma, chronic sinusitis, and skin diseases involving upper part of body, diabetes, chronic cold, lymphatic congestion, chronic indigestion, and edema.

Virechana (Purgation Therapy):

The procedure in which, the elimination of morbid doshas (Bio-humour) occurs through the lower part / anal route is known as Virechana.  When excess Pitta is accumulated in the gall bladder, liver, and small intestine, it tends to result in rashes, skin inflammation, acne, chronic recurrent fever, biliary vomiting, nausea, and jaundice. Ayurvedic literature suggests in these conditions the administration of therapeutic purgation.

Basti (Enema Therapy):

The procedure in which, formulation administered through rectal canal reaches up to the small intestine and disintegrates the accumulated doshas (Biohumour) and stool, spreads the uncutuousness (potency of the drugs) all over the body and easily comes out along with the stool and doshas is called Basti. Vata is the main factor involved in pathogenesis (disease). If one can control Vata through the use of Basti, then it is easier to treat the root cause of the vast majority of diseases. Vata is the motive force behind the elimination and retention of faeces, urine, bile and other excreta. Vata is mainly located in the large intestine, but bone tissue (Asthi Dhatu) is also a site for Vata. Hence the medication administered rectally affects Asthi Dhatu. The mucus membrane of the colon is related to the bone tissues.

Nasya (Errhine Therapy):

The procedure in which, the medicated oil are administered through nose to eliminate the vitiated doshas situated in head is known as Nasya. Nose is the gateway of the brain. An excess of doshas accumulated in the sinus, throat, nose, or head areas is eliminated through the nose.

Raktasmokshan (Bloodletting

It is a procedure of removing the vitiated blood out of the body, in diseases caused mainly by Rakta and Pitta. It is carried out either by using sharp surgical instruments or by parasurgical measures in a measured quantity.

Paschat Karma:

After Shodhana karma, digestive fire (Agni) & strength of body becomes weak. So to restore the strength of digestive fire & body strength special dietetic regimen is advised. So Paschat karma includes the regimens like Samsarjana Krama, specially planned diet and other post therapeutic measures like Dhumapana, Kavalgraha and Gandusha etc. Also some restrictions related to food & behaviour are advised to the person.